Kim, Hyungsook
B.63 | Wednesday, 18 July 2007, 11:00 - 11:30, Room B1
Critical inquiry: art criticism and art appreciation in art education
Discourses of critical inquiry in art criticism and education have been raised in Discipline-Based Art Education during the late 1970s. John Dewey, Elliot Eisner, George Geahigan, Tom Anderson, Kerry Freedman, and Brent Wilson have considered issues surrounding the education of art criticism and art. Dewey maintains that the purpose of art criticism is to educate students to be able to recognize artworks. Eisner stresses the essential role of art critics as ‘education.’ Anderson and Milbrandt maintain that art criticism is not for criticism for itself, but to deliver what the art represents—that is, the relationship between human beings and life. In this context, educational art criticism is proposed. Educational art criticism gives human beings an understanding of social and cultural experience in relation to aesthetic experience. Educational art criticism is useful not only for professionals in the world of art but also for ordinary people. In Korea until the end of the 1980s, the education of art criticism, art history, and art appreciation was proposed in the field of art history, and not art education. This discourse focused on the importance of the education of art theory in the universities, especially the education of art history. These pointed out the limitations of art education in the universities in Korea, in that education was focused on the training of skills in studio works. Critical inquiry in art criticism education included current issues in the field of art education in Korea. Several studies have been conducted regarding the education of aesthetics and art criticism in order to improve higher contemplative faculty. Additionally, textbooks for primary schools focusing on multiple interpretations of artworks have been developed in the process of art appreciation and criticism. In the multicultural art world, diverse artists in the contexts of diverse cultural backgrounds are competing and negotiating with each other. In this context, the methodologies of art education are demanded, especially the art educational methods of critical inquiry in relation to cultural studies, multiculturalism, and post-colonialism. This study examines the methods of art criticism and appreciation in the context of art education in Korea, in exchanging the characteristics of Korean culture with others in the multicultural society. The methodologies of art criticism and appreciation could overcome the ‘Orientalism’ discussed by Edward Said and the ‘Third World’ discussed by Homi Bhabha when describing marginalized nations, cultures, and societies. The method of critical inquiry in the education of art criticism can reconsider art education focusing on studio arts and the occidentalization of art education in Korea. In developing the cross-cultural approach to critical inquiry, we can suggest alternative educational methods of art criticism, and recreate our own culture and visual arts within our own contexts.
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